# Sep 24, 2019 Phenomenography was originally developed by Professor Ference Marton and his colleagues at the University of Gothenburg in their studies of

Variation theory of learning was developed by Ference Marton of the University of Gothenburg. One of its basic tenets is that learning is always directed at something – the object of learning (phenomenon, object, skills, or certain aspects of reality) and that learning must result in a qualitative change in the way of seeing this “something” (Ling & Marton, 2011).

This paper describes the variation theory of learning, its underlying principles, and how it might be appropriated by teachers. variation (Marton, 2015). Foremost, though, the results reveal the importance of mak-ing connections to highlight number relations and key features associated with the stru c-tural approach to additive relations. The results suggest that how variation is offered, This is described as phenomenography's "theory of variation." [9] Phenomenography allows researchers to use their own experiences as data for phenomenographic analysis; [8] [10] it aims for a collective analysis of individual experiences. Ference Marton is Professor of Education at the Göteborg University, Sweden and Honorary Professor at the Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong. He is internationally known for introducing the distinction between deep and surface approaches to learning, for developing phenomenography as a methodology for educational research, and more recently for developing the variation theory of learning. variation in the future is by experiencing variation in the present and by having experienced variation in the past.” (The abstract of a seminar given by Ference Marton at The University of Hong Kong, 21 Nov 2006) According to Marton’s Theory of Variation, discernment of critical features occurs developer using variation theory.

Marton and Pang 2006; Marton and Tsui 2004), to be able to Patterns of variation from Marton's Theory of Variation are understood (The abstract of a seminar given by Ference Marton at The University of Hong Kong, 21. Jul 19, 2020 Ference Marton describes the 'dimensions of possible variation' and 'range of permissible change' for a given concept. That is, what features (Marton and Tsui 2004 Ference with the variation theory of learning and The consolidation of phenomenography and the variation theory with ECE aspect, the learner must experience potential alternatives, that is, variation in a dimen Correspondence and requests for reprints should be sent to Ference Marton, contingent to the necessary where the real work of theory-buildin Variation theory, developed by Marton and co-workers (Bowden and Marton 1998, Ference Marton has further extended these ideas with a stronger emphasis Aug 27, 2013 Ference Marton a Keywords: Variation Theory; Phenomenography; Discernment; immodestly the Variation Theory (of Learning) (Marton,. In Sweden and Hong Kong, Ference Marton led a group of researchers to develop the variation theory of learning (Pang et al., 2017). Originating from “a A number of learning study projects in Hong Kong, based on variation theory, have Together with Ference Marton and a group of researchers in Hong Kong, Feb 27, 2019 Flatland by Edwin Abbott; Walter and Brown's 'The Art of Problem Posing'; Ference Marton's work; Ulla Runesson's work; Piaget's action schema MARTON, F. (1998) 'Towards a Theory of Quality in Higher Education', in B. Dart & G. Boulton-Lewis (eds) Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: From Learning presents a research approach (phenomenography) and a theory (the variation theory of learning) introduced and developed by Ference Marton and and a learning theory of variation developed at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden by Ference Marton and his co-workers (see Marton and Booth 1997). The Conditions of Learning-Robert Mills Gagné 1996 Applies the theoretical ( the variation theory of learning) introduced and developed by Ference Marton. ing Ference Marton's variation theory and Patrick Thompson's theory of quantitative reasoning, we designed digital task sequences, in which students were to Dec 7, 2019 This is inspired from Ference Marton's Variation Theory (VT).

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Thus the differing outcomes could be explained in terms of differing levels of knowledge or linguistic skills. Although such an argument may be true in a general way, it cannot explain the results of this Ference Marton (born Ferenc Istvan Marton 7 March 1939) is a Swedish educational psychologist who is best known for introducing the distinction between deep and surface approaches to learning, and developing phenomenography as a methodology for educational research. Ference Marton, Johan Häggström R. Huang & Y. Li (Eds.), Teaching and Learning Mathematics through Variation – Confucian Heritage Meets Western Theories - 2017-01-01 Learning to subitize the first ten numbers as a necessary condition for the development of arithmetic Necessary Conditions of Learning presents a research approach (phenomenography) and a theory (the variation theory of learning) introduced and developed by Ference Marton and taken up by his wide 1 dag sedan · Kullberg, Angelika, Ulla Runesson Kempe, and Ference Marton.

### Lo, M. L., & Marton, F. (2012). Towards a science of the art of teaching: Using variation theory as a guiding principle of pedagogical design. International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 1(1), 7-22.

He is internationally known for Necessary Conditions of Learning presents a research approach (phenomenography) and a theory (the variation theory of learning) introduced and developed by Ference Marton and taken up by his wide and varied following around the world—together with their practical applications in educational contexts. Ference Marton is Professor of Education at the Goeteborg University, Sweden and Honorary Professor at the Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong. He is internationally known for introducing the distinction between deep and surface approaches to learning, for developing phenomenography as a methodology for educational research, and more recently for developing the variation theory Keywords: variation, variation theory, connections in teaching, making conne ctions, early numbers, teaching and learning additive relations, I also wish to thank Ference Marton! ItÕs been stimulating and inspirin g working with you in the FASETT project Ð I loved those Gothenburg !

Variation Theory from Professor Ference Marton in 1998. The theory focuses on the object of learning and is interested in students’ experience of, and ways of understanding, an object of learning.

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people experience the world. This. concepts of the theory that underlies.

In 2006, I wrote an article for MT194 about variation, with John Mason, in which we presented and explored what using variation in the design of mathematical tasks could mean and the implications for developing mathematical learning. Our writing then was a development of the work done by Ference Marton
The purpose of this paper is to elaborate the concepts of part and whole in Ference Marton's variation theory for dealing with how learners come to understand something of a whole as made up of its parts.

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### Towards a science of the art of teaching more. by Ference Marton. ABSTRACT Purpose – One important contribution of variation theory to learning study is that it brings the focus of the learning study sharply on the object of learning and provides a theoretical grounding to understand some of the more.

Particularly, the Marton's theory offers an epistemological foundation and conceptual support for the Chinese theory. Moreover, the authors argue that the teaching with variation characterizes the mathematics teaching in China and by adopting teaching with variation, even with large classes, students still can actively involve themselves in the process of learning and achieve excellent results.

## This study explored how the teaching of probability under the framework of Ference Marton's Variation Theory affected the learning outcomes of secondary 5

Originated by Ference Marton, Variation Theory allows students to The most obvious explanation of why such variations in understanding arise would be to argue that learning depends on prior knowledge. Thus the differing outcomes could be explained in terms of differing levels of knowledge or linguistic skills. Although such an argument may be true in a general way, it cannot explain the results of this Ference Marton (born Ferenc Istvan Marton 7 March 1939) is a Swedish educational psychologist who is best known for introducing the distinction between deep and surface approaches to learning, and developing phenomenography as a methodology for educational research. Ference Marton, Johan Häggström R. Huang & Y. Li (Eds.), Teaching and Learning Mathematics through Variation – Confucian Heritage Meets Western Theories - 2017-01-01 Learning to subitize the first ten numbers as a necessary condition for the development of arithmetic Necessary Conditions of Learning presents a research approach (phenomenography) and a theory (the variation theory of learning) introduced and developed by Ference Marton and taken up by his wide 1 dag sedan · Kullberg, Angelika, Ulla Runesson Kempe, and Ference Marton. "What is made possible to learn when using the variation theory of learning in teaching mathematics?." ZDM (2017): 1-11.

in i tre metodkategorier; variation, struktur- och mönsterskapande samt dialog.